COPD

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  1. Generic: Budesonide + Formoterol Fumarate
    Equivalent Brand: Symbicort
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    Equivalent Brand: Metaproterenol
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    Equivalent Brand: Xopenex
    30 Tablet/s
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    $4.00
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    Equivalent Brand: Amril Plus
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    Equivalent Brand: Albuterol
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  7. Generic: Levosalbutamol + Ipratropium Bromide
    Equivalent Brand: Combivent
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  8. Generic: Arformoterol Tartrate
    Equivalent Brand: Periactin
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    $28.00
  9. Generic: Levosalbutamol
    Equivalent Brand: Xopenex
    30 Rotacap/s
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  10. Generic: Salmeterol
    Equivalent Brand: Serevent
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    $3.80
    Out of stock
  11. Generic: Glycopyrrolate
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    30 Capsule/s
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    $15.00
per page

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive lung condition characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation. This condition encompasses various respiratory disorders, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema, often caused by long-term exposure to irritating gases or particulate matter, most commonly from cigarette smoke. Here's an overview of COPD, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management:

Causes:

Smoking:

  • Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of COPD. It accounts for the majority of cases.

Environmental Exposures:

  • Prolonged exposure to air pollutants, workplace dust, chemicals, and fumes.

Genetic Factors:

  • A rare genetic disorder called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can contribute to the development of COPD.

Symptoms:

Chronic Cough:

  • Persistent cough that may produce mucus.

Shortness of Breath:

  • Gradual onset of breathlessness, especially during physical activities.

Wheezing:

  • Whistling or squeaky sound while breathing.

Chest Tightness:

  • Feeling of pressure or constriction in the chest.

Diagnosis:

Medical History:

  • Discussion of symptoms, smoking history, and exposure to environmental factors.

Physical Examination:

  • Assessment of respiratory symptoms, lung function, and overall health.

Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs):

  • Spirometry to measure lung function and identify airflow limitation.

Imaging Studies:

  • Chest X-rays or CT scans to visualize the lungs and assess for structural abnormalities.

Stages of COPD:

  • COPD is often categorized into stages based on the severity of airflow limitation, commonly classified using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria:

Mild (Stage 1):

  • Mild airflow limitation, with or without symptoms.

Moderate (Stage 2):

  • Progressive airflow limitation with an increase in symptoms.

Severe (Stage 3):

  • Further reduction in airflow, increased symptoms, and impact on daily activities.

Very Severe (Stage 4):

  • Severe airflow limitation, significant symptoms, and a high risk of exacerbations.

Management:

Smoking Cessation:

  • The most crucial intervention to slow disease progression.

Medications:

  • Bronchodilators: Open airways to improve airflow.
  • Inhaled Corticosteroids: Reduce inflammation in the airways.

Pulmonary Rehabilitation:

  • Exercise programs, education, and support to improve physical and emotional well-being.

Oxygen Therapy:

  • Supplemental oxygen to maintain adequate blood oxygen levels.

Vaccinations:

  • Influenza and pneumonia vaccines to prevent respiratory infections.

Surgery:

  • In some cases, lung volume reduction surgery or lung transplantation may be considered.

Management of Exacerbations:

  • Prompt treatment of acute worsening of symptoms to prevent complications.

Conclusion:

COPD is a chronic and progressive condition that requires comprehensive management to improve symptoms, slow disease progression, and enhance overall quality of life. Early diagnosis, smoking cessation, and a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals contribute to effective COPD management.