Uterine Bleeding

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Uterine bleeding, also known as abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), refers to irregular and unpredictable bleeding from the uterus that deviates from a woman's normal menstrual cycle. This condition can have various causes and may occur at different life stages. Here's an overview of uterine bleeding:

1. Causes of Uterine Bleeding:

  • Hormonal Imbalances: Fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels can disrupt the normal menstrual cycle, leading to irregular bleeding.
  • Uterine Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus can cause heavy or prolonged bleeding.
  • Polyps: Uterine polyps, small growths on the inner lining of the uterus, may result in abnormal bleeding.
  • Endometrial Hyperplasia: Thickening of the uterine lining can lead to irregular bleeding.
  • Infections: Infections of the reproductive organs may cause uterine bleeding.
  • Pregnancy Complications: Issues such as miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy can cause abnormal bleeding.

2. Types of Uterine Bleeding:

  • Menorrhagia: Excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding.
  • Metrorrhagia: Irregular bleeding between menstrual periods.
  • Menometrorrhagia: A combination of heavy and irregular bleeding.
  • Postmenopausal Bleeding: Any bleeding that occurs after menopause is considered abnormal and should be evaluated.

3. Diagnosis:

  • Medical History: A detailed history of menstrual patterns, pregnancies, and associated symptoms.
  • Physical Examination: A pelvic exam to assess the reproductive organs for abnormalities.
  • Ultrasound: Imaging tests, such as transvaginal ultrasound, to visualize the uterus and detect structural issues.
  • Blood Tests: Hormone levels and blood counts may be checked to identify hormonal imbalances or anemia.
  • Endometrial Biopsy: A small tissue sample from the uterine lining may be collected for further examination.

4. Management and Treatment:

  • Hormonal Therapy: Hormonal medications, such as birth control pills or hormone therapy, may regulate menstrual cycles.
  • Dilation and Curettage (D&C): A procedure to remove or diagnose abnormal tissue from the uterine lining.
  • Endometrial Ablation: A minimally invasive procedure to destroy the uterine lining, reducing or eliminating bleeding.
  • Surgery: In cases of fibroids or other structural issues, surgical interventions may be considered.

5. Addressing Underlying Conditions:

  • Treatment of Infections: Antibiotics may be prescribed to treat reproductive tract infections.
  • Management of Fibroids or Polyps: Depending on the size and location, removal or other interventions may be recommended.
  • Addressing Hormonal Imbalances: Hormone therapy or lifestyle changes may help regulate hormonal levels.

6. Follow-Up and Monitoring:

  • Regular Check-ups: Follow-up appointments with healthcare providers to monitor treatment effectiveness and address any new concerns.
  • Patient Education: Providing information on managing symptoms and recognizing signs of complications.


Uterine bleeding can have various causes, and an accurate diagnosis is essential for appropriate management. Seeking medical attention for evaluation, diagnosis, and tailored treatment is crucial for addressing the underlying factors contributing to abnormal uterine bleeding.