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HIV- A chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight the organisms ...Read More

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HIV- A chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight the organisms that cause disease. HIV is an infection transmitted through sexual activity.

HERPES- Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection caused by HSV (herpes simplex virus). This virus affects the genitals, the cervix, and skin in other parts of the body. There are two types of herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 (Herpes Type 1) and HSV-2 (Herpes Type 2).Cases of genital herpes are typically caused by HSV-2, which is primarily transmitted through sexual contact. HSV-1, which most commonly causes oral herpes, can cause genital herpes through oral-genital contact.1

How it is caused:


  • Sexual transmission - HIV can happen when there is contact with infected sexual fluids (genital, rectal, or oral mucous membranes). This can happen while having unprotected sex, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex, or sharing sex toys with someone infected with HIV.
  • Perinatal transmission - a mother can pass the infection on to her child during childbirth, pregnancy, and also through breastfeeding.
  • Blood transmission - the risk of transmitting HIV through blood transfusion is nowadays extremely low in developed countries, thanks to meticulous screening and precautions. However, among injection or IV drug users, shared or reused syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood is extremely hazardous.

HERPES- When Herpes simplex virus is present on the surface of the skin of an infected person it easily passes on to someone else through the moist skin which lines the anus, mouth, and genitals. The virus may also pass on to another individual through other areas of human skin, as well as the eyes. A human cannot become infected by touching an object i.e. towel, washbasin, or working surface) that has been touched by an infected person.
Herpes simplex virus leaves the skin just before a blister appears. The virus is most likely to be passed on just before the blister appears when it is visible, and until the blister is completely healed. It can still be passed on to another person when there are no signs of an outbreak (but it is less likely).If a mother with genital herpes has sores while giving birth, it is possible that the infection will be passed on to the baby.Infection can occur in the following ways:

  • Having unprotected vaginal or anal sex
  • Sharing sex toys
  • Having oral sex with a person who gets cold sores
  • Having genital contact with an infected person


HIV- There is currently no cure for HIV or AIDS. Treatments can slow the course of the condition - and allow most infected people the opportunity to live a long and relatively healthy life. Early HIV treatment is crucial as it improves the quality of life, extends life expectancy, and reduces the risk of transmission, according to the World Health Organization's guidelines issued in June 2013. Currently, there is no vaccine or cure for HIV, but treatments have evolved which are much more effective and better tolerated - they can improve patients' general health and quality of life considerably, in as little as one pill per day.

HERPES-There is no drug that can get rid of the virus. The doctor may prescribe an antiviral, such as acyclovir. It prevents the virus from multiplying. Antiviral tablets will help the outbreak clear up faster - they will also help reduce the severity of symptoms. Antivirals are generally given the first time a patient has symptoms. Treatment is not usually necessary when their recurrent outbreaks are milder.


HIV- To prevent being infected with HIV, healthcare professional’s advice precautions while having:

  • Unprotected sex
  • Drug abuse and needle sharing
  • Body fluid exposure
  • Pregnancy

HERPES- To reduce the risk of developing or passing on genital herpes:

  • Use condoms while having sex
  • Do not have sex when symptoms are visible i.e. genital, anal, or skin-to-skin.
  • Do not kiss when there is a cold sore around the mouth
  • Do not have many sexual partners

Some people find that being tired, stress, illness, friction against the skin, or sunbathing may trigger recurrences of symptoms. Avoiding such triggers, if they can be identified as it may help to reduce the number of recurrences.


HIV- The symptoms of early HIV infection may include:

  • fever
  • chills
  • joint pain
  • muscle aches
  • sore throat
  • sweat (particularly at night)
  • enlarged glands
  • a red rash
  • tiredness
  • weakness
  • unintentional weight loss

Primary infection symptoms- Primary infection is a term used for an outbreak of genital herpes that occurs when a person is first infected. Primary infection symptoms, if they are experienced, are usually more severe than later recurrences. Symptoms can last up to 20 days and may include:

  • Blisters and ulceration on the cervix
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Pain when urinating
  • High temperature (fever)
  • Malaise (feeling unwell)
  • Cold sores around the mouth

Recurrent infection symptoms- These symptoms do not last long and tend to be less severe because the patient's body has built up some protection against the virus. In most cases, symptoms will not last for more than 10 days. Eventually, recurrences happen less often and are much less severe. Patients with HSV-1 will have fewer recurrences and less severe symptoms than people infected with HSV-2.

  • Burning/tingling around genitals before blisters appear
  • Cold sores around the mouth
  • Women may have blisters and ulceration on the cervix
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